Janet’s visitor is psychologist, author, researcher, and Harvard lecturer Susan Linn. For many years, Susan has been a passionate advocate for our kids and a steadfast fighter in opposition to the infiltration of Massive Enterprise and Massive Tech into youngsters’ lives (and fogeys’ pocketbooks). In an eye-opening dialogue, Susan describes how digital tradition is designed to indoctrinate youngsters into consumerism and model loyalty, and the way it’s geared to create dependencies on video games and gadgets for stimulation and soothing. She explains how video games and gadgets educate values which might be typically diametrically against our personal, how they will have an effect on studying by shrinking our kids’s world and even intervene with parent-child relationships. In the end, Susan and Janet deal with the constructive actions we are able to take to minimize the influence of manipulative entrepreneurs whereas realistically acknowledging the position of digitized tradition in all of our lives.
Transcript of “Elevating Inventive, Essential Thinkers in a Commercialized World (with Susan Linn)”
Hello, that is Janet Lansbury. Welcome to Unruffled.
Immediately I’m welcoming Susan Linn to Unruffled. She’s been a hero of mine for such a very long time. I’ve been conscious of her work for years now. She’s a author, a psychologist. She based Marketing campaign for a Business-Free Childhood, and she or he’s a analysis affiliate at Boston Youngsters’s Hospital and a lecturer at Harvard Medical College. She can be a ventriloquist and even appeared on Mr. Rogers Neighborhood.
Susan’s authored three books Consuming Youngsters, The Case for Make Imagine and her newest, Who’s Elevating the Youngsters, and I’m wanting ahead to speaking to Susan about how Massive Tech and Massive Enterprise can infiltrate our kids’s lives and affect their values, their relationships, and their studying, and what we are able to do about it.
Janet Lansbury: Susan, thanks a lot for being right here. That is such a deal with for me.
Susan Linn: I’m thrilled to be speaking to you.
Janet Lansbury: You’ve been an enormous hero to me for a really very long time. And I bear in mind again whenever you have been taking “Your Child Can Learn” after which “Child Einstein” to job for the false claims that they have been making, taking dad and mom’ cash. These corporations, they prey on our vulnerabilities. All of us wish to do one of the best for our kids. So that you stood up and you probably did all of the work to get them investigated and you set “Your Child Can Learn” utterly out of enterprise mainly, proper?
Susan Linn: The concept that they have been claiming that infants can learn with no proof that they might educate infants to learn and that it was good for infants to learn was simply horrible. And with “Child Einstein” claiming that these movies have been instructional for infants after they had no proof and when there was beginning to be proof that a number of display time isn’t good for infants or toddlers. So I’m actually glad that Marketing campaign for Business-Free Childhood, which is now known as Fairplay, I’m actually glad that we have been in a position to do this. I imply, the group was based by me and a few colleagues as a result of we actually noticed this as a social justice subject. The commercialization of kids’s lives and the company takeover of childhood was actually about rights and freedoms, the rights of kids to develop up and the liberty for folks to lift them with out being undermined by greed. I’m thrilled at what’s taking place at Fairplay right now. They’ve actually expanded and now they’re working with members of Congress consulting on payments. I’m so happy with them.
Janet Lansbury: Yeah. Effectively you began it and your ardour now has prolonged into… that is your third e book, proper? Who’s Elevating the Youngsters: Massive Tech, Massive Enterprise, and the Lives of Youngsters. You share some very daunting issues. A number of them I knew, however a few of them I by no means even actually thought of… like that we’re coaching youngsters to be little shoppers from an early age. So are you able to speak a little bit about a number of the issues that you simply take into account probably the most threatening or the most important considerations that you simply speak about within the e book?
Susan Linn: One factor that I feel is necessary for folks to recollect is that the method of promoting and advertising and marketing to youngsters, that it’s not nearly promoting merchandise. It’s about inculcating values and behaviors. And the values and behaviors that profit firms aren’t actually good for kids.
The first worth of selling is to persuade folks that the issues we purchase will make us blissful. And what analysis is telling us is that the issues we purchase might make us blissful for a short time, however it’s not any type of sustained happiness. What makes us blissful are relationships and experiences. And but youngsters immersed in our digitized, overly commercialized tradition are simply being pounded with that message. And as so nicely, younger youngsters’s brains are rising and growing, and the issues that we be taught in childhood can actually change into lifelong values, attributes, and behaviors,
Janet Lansbury: Proper, as a result of this the foundational stage, and probably the most intense time of studying
Susan Linn: Apart from video chatting with adults who love them, there actually isn’t any profit to younger youngsters being immersed in screens. I imply, it’s in the meanwhile anyway largely a two dimensional world. It shrinks their world right down to lower than a sq. foot. And when infants, after we take them out on the earth, we actually need them to be partaking with that world, to be wanting round and experiencing the folks passing by, experiencing nature, or the sights and sounds of town. After we need youngsters to be interested in and on the earth round them, and in addition to generate their very own pursuits and to have the ability to soothe and amuse themselves, as a substitute, youngsters spending hours and hours a day with screens are being educated to show to screens for stimulation and for soothing. That’s an issue.
There was only a research that got here out suggesting that toddlers who’ve much less display time usually tend to have good government operate abilities. They’re extra apt to have the ability to provoke duties, see them via. And that’s so necessary for coping in life.
And in addition, as , Janet, they be taught in relationship. And one of many issues that worries me probably the most about Massive Tech and Massive Enterprise right now is that they’re coming between dad and mom and kids. And so they’re disrupting that vital relationship, not simply with dad and mom, but in addition with academics and different caregivers. As an illustration, digital help like Alexa are being marketed as serving parental features like serving to with homework or studying tales or telling tales, issues that ordinarily an grownup would do with a baby. And that relationship is being disrupted and it’s being disrupted purposely.
Janet Lansbury: Sure. You go into a number of the techniques that the firms and Massive Tech use to suck youngsters in and suck dad and mom in with them actually. And getting youngsters to… You talked in regards to the, what’s it, “the nag one thing” <snicker>, “the nag issue.” That considered one of their objectives is to get youngsters to nag their dad and mom to purchase them the following factor that they want or the following replace to their sport or no matter it’s.
Susan Linn: In 1998, an organization known as Western Media Worldwide did a research on nagging. It wasn’t to assist dad and mom deal with nagging, it was designed to assist firms assist youngsters nag extra successfully. And the researchers made options about how firms may get youngsters to nag. I imply, it will be humorous if it simply wasn’t so horrendous. We have now these enormous conglomerates mainly doing issues that disrupt household life. And as a colleague of mine mentioned, “to make dad and mom completely depressing.”
Janet Lansbury: Proper, and to create this model loyalty with youngsters for all times, they really feel like this can be a happiness issue, this model, no matter it’s.
Susan Linn: And I feel the opposite factor that’s modified over the previous a number of years is that I don’t suppose that we are able to simply give it some thought by way of screens anymore. It’s not simply screens. I imply, there are additionally all of those tech enabled toys that sing and dance and do again flips all by themselves or simply on the push of a button. And because the saying goes, toy, a toy that basically promotes the type of artistic play that’s useful to youngsters is 90% little one and solely 10% toy. A superb toy actually simply lies there till any person picks it up and does one thing with it.
However these tech enabled toys, to begin with, they promote, nicely, they seem like they’re a number of enjoyable in 15 or 30 second commercials, however actually youngsters get uninterested in them fairly rapidly. And that advantages firms as a result of in the event that they get bored and in the event that they imagine that the issues they purchase will make them blissful, then what they’ll do is go on and purchase one other factor, an even bigger factor, a greater factor, a unique factor.
Janet Lansbury: One thing that I realized from my mentor, Magda Gerber, is that youngsters are discouraged from exploring and investigating extra completely toys that they will’t perceive. They’ll’t perceive why that noise occurs after they push that button. And so it type of discourages this energetic exploration that youngsters are so constructed to do within the early years.
Susan Linn: Yeah, I feel that’s actually, actually necessary.
I’m in the meanwhile significantly involved about digital help like Amazon’s Alexa, Amazon makes an Alexa for teenagers. It comes with a sensible speaker that I purchased. I purchased one and really it’s extremely cute, the sensible speaker. It’s this little pleasant wanting tiger. And naturally we’re wired to reply to cuteness. And the factor is that although Amazon is claiming that Alexa is business free, that Alexa for Youngsters is business free, it has a characteristic that’s known as, “I’m Bored.” So the very first thing I did once I received this little Echo Dot, the very first thing I did is pretending to be a baby. I mentioned, “Alexa, I’m bored.” And it supplied me, one after one other, 5 business product video games that have been based mostly on manufacturers. “Would you wish to play a Barbie sport?”
Janet Lansbury: Oh gosh.
Susan Linn: I mentioned, “No.”
“Oh, nicely would you wish to play a SpongeBob Squarepants sport?”
I mentioned, “No.”
“Would you wish to play a Wizarding World sport?”
Which is Harry Potter. I mentioned, “No.”
“Would you wish to play an American Lady Doll sport?”
I imply, each single factor that the kid I used to be pretending to be was supplied to do mainly was an commercial for a model. And what firms need is for kids and fogeys to suppose that the one means that they will have enjoyable is with these branded selection.
Janet Lansbury: As an grownup, I’ve to confess, I miss a number of the promoting that’s coming at me that’s extra hidden like that. It’s simply exhausting sufficient even for us as adults. After which we’ve received youngsters type of immersed in this stuff that they will’t actually see. It simply turns into normalized for them.
Susan Linn: And so they work with little one psychologists to use youngsters’s vulnerabilities, to know what they’re after which work out learn how to exploit them.
Additionally, what has modified since my first e book Consuming Youngsters, which was primarily about tv and video promoting, is that now we and our kids are simply being surveilled on a regular basis. So if youngsters are taking part in with a sensible toy, it signifies that their play is being surveilled. And that may assist firms higher learn how to market to that little one. As , youngsters’s play is a window into their hearts and minds.
Janet Lansbury: Completely, yeah.
Susan shares a lot eye opening info and unbelievable analysis in her e book. After which it’s nearly as you probably have two books in a single, as a result of then you will have these chapters on the finish which might be very detailed and complete about what dad and mom can do, each of their private life and to make societal change. A few of these factors that you simply make remind me of actually frequent misconceptions that I hear about from dad and mom, and I wished to speak about a few these or carry up these and listen to your ideas.
One is: “Keep in mind that there’s no proof that youngsters should begin utilizing display applied sciences in early childhood to achieve a digital world.”
In order that’s a priority that I hear so much that, “nicely, I wish to get them prepared for this, they should be taught this.
Susan Linn: That’s so annoying, isn’t it, that that’s the message that folks are getting, and why shouldn’t they imagine it? However actually, to begin with, the applied sciences are going to alter. If you concentrate on when laptops and smartphones and apps have been launched, all people was saying, “Oh, that is energetic media. It’s not passive media and this can introduce your little one to the technological age.”
However in case you have a look at what youngsters do on a display, little youngsters, what they’re doing primarily is swiping or tapping or making issues greater or smaller. That’s about it. And in reality, we’re going to maneuver away from even touching screens in any respect. We’re heading in direction of “voice” the place youngsters will simply be capable of speak.
And so I’m glad you introduced that up as a result of it’s so unfair to folks that that’s the message that they’re getting. And it’s a message sadly, that they’re getting not simply from firms, but in addition from some colleges. It’s the justification for introducing tablets to kindergartners and even in preschools, when actually, once more, there’s no proof that it’s useful.
The tech, it’s not going to go away. However what which means is that we actually have to consider it by way of what’s finest for kids and what youngsters are going to wish on this more and more digitized and commercialized world. They’re going to wish to discover ways to suppose critically. And that comes about via hands-on artistic play and conversations with the adults who love them.
They’re going to wish to have the ability to differentiate between what the tech trade calls ” in actual life” and Mark Zuckerberg’s Metaverse that’s already this digital corporate-controlled world.
What firms need from youngsters will not be for the youngsters’s wellbeing. What they need is to develop lifetime model loyalty, to get youngsters hooked on the expertise and to have them flip to the expertise for info. And as I mentioned earlier than, is for soothing and amusing. And which means we’re actually turning youngsters over to multinational firms, mainly, who come between dad and mom and kids.
Janet Lansbury: And but a lot of the heads of those firms wouldn’t do this with their very own youngsters. In order that’s at all times attention-grabbing too.
Susan Linn: Yeah, there was simply an article within the New York Occasions by a tech government who was speaking about how he makes video video games that have been marketed to youngsters after which he had youngsters and determined that his youngsters couldn’t play the video video games.
However , it’s important to take into consideration not simply your youngsters, we want to consider all people’s youngsters,
Janet Lansbury: Proper. As a result of as you so properly mentioned, a number of this recommendation that you simply give (and that I give) is so much simpler for folks with the next socioeconomic standing which might be blessed to have two dad and mom and areas to go which might be secure, to be exterior, simple methods for them to self-direct their play, environments that make that attainable. And that isn’t the case with so many households but they need one of the best for his or her youngsters in fact, too. In order that’s the place societal change issues.
Susan Linn: Sure, it must be societal change.
I’ve a number of options for folks as a result of societal change takes time and fogeys need assistance now, however I didn’t write this e book to make dad and mom really feel responsible. I feel it’s actually exhausting to be a dad or mum right now. Mother and father are burdened about all kinds of issues, however this unregulated, seductive, addictive expertise, it makes issues even more durable. And one factor that we do as dad and mom, I imply all of us do issues for comfort, particularly if we’re burdened with our youngsters, and it’s so handy and so seductive handy a toddler or a child a smartphone as a result of they are going to be immediately captivated. I feel it’s necessary for folks to know that giving your little one a smartphone a few times, that’s not going to destroy your little one. The issue is that after you begin, it’s exhausting to cease. And the extra you do it, the much less apt your little one goes to have the ability to play on their very own.
And it’s introduced as type of like a binary world. Both you’re taking part in together with your little one on a regular basis or your little one is on a display. However none of us can play with our kids on a regular basis. And in addition youngsters must have alternatives to have the ability to play on their very own and to discover the world in a secure means on their very own. The concept that it’s important to play with youngsters on a regular basis otherwise you’re a nasty dad or mum will not be true. And in case you begin relying on screens when your youngsters are actually younger, then they’ll want screens to be able to occupy themselves.
Janet Lansbury: Sure, I feel there are lots of people like I as soon as was, I believed that with my first child, that I wanted to entertain her on a regular basis, that she was form of this empty-headed particular person that basically wanted enter and wanted stimulation. I had even learn a e book that advised me I ought to do this. That’s what I believed my little one wanted till I discovered this entire different means I’m so enthusiastic about. And the best way I discovered it was that I took her to this little class and so they mentioned, simply lie her down on her again and let her be and simply observe her. And he or she was completely content material for a very long time and clearly had her personal ideas. That was the primary time I really noticed: Oh, this can be a particular person. Not solely is it an individual, is an individual with a number of stuff occurring in her personal thoughts that I wish to learn about. I really feel actually blessed that I used to be capable of see that after which begin on this monitor the place I had a number of assist in determining learn how to develop what she was doing proper there, which was mainly entertaining herself. Creating that, and seeing all of the presents of it.
And such as you mentioned earlier than, it’s not simply vital pondering, it’s downside fixing, curiosity, creativeness, creativity, innovation, the issues that they do this seem like, with a sure lens: Oh, they’re simply messing round or they’re simply goofing round with these toys. And whenever you actually look, they’re growing every kind of theories and testing issues out. It’s so highly effective. However dad and mom don’t know learn how to develop that. In order that’s been a number of my work, serving to dad and mom domesticate that point that’s the most useful time for kids. And that makes it very attainable for folks to know that they will take breaks and never have to provide their little one one thing to maintain ’em occupied throughout that point.
Susan Linn: I’ve watched youngsters after they’re in conditions which might be boring in line at grocery shops or in the event that they’re going buying with their dad or mum and their dad or mum has to strive on garments and that type of factor. And so they don’t simply stand there, they make humorous sounds or they transfer their our bodies in enjoyable methods. They devise issues to do in that scenario. And in the event that they’re being handed a tool, they’re being disadvantaged of that.
Janet Lansbury: And most of us have misplaced, nicely, I don’t wish to say most of us, however I’ve misplaced the flexibility to, or misplaced the will to wish to do this in line: simply enthusiastic about life, taking a look at different folks. I wish to go to my telephone as a result of I’ve it and-
Susan Linn: I do know it’s an issue, particularly in case your work is on-line. So I do know I can’t inform if I’m work addicted or display addicted or each. Consistently checking. And that’s additionally one thing that we have to care for ourselves. I imply, we are able to’t assist youngsters deal with expertise until we are able to deal with it as nicely.
Janet Lansbury: Not less than in entrance of them, at
Susan Linn: At least in entrance of them. However that’s actually necessary. And I do encourage dad and mom to strive limiting their display time after they’re with their youngsters. College of Michigan, I feel that it was them, did a research taking a look at dad and mom at a playground with their youngsters. And what they discovered is that if the dad and mom sitting across the playground or the sandbox or no matter, in the event that they have been immersed of their telephones that they didn’t even hear their youngsters name them, they didn’t reply anyway. After which after they did reply, they have been extra prone to reply with irritation. And so they didn’t do this in the event that they have been concerned in analog issues like speaking to different dad and mom.
It’s so highly effective, these screens, and so purposely designed to seize our consideration that they’re exhausting to withstand.
My daughter was an toddler, a toddler preschooler, lengthy earlier than all this expertise. So I’d wish to suppose that I’d be a dad or mum who would give you the chance to withstand it and issues like that. However I feel it’s additionally necessary for us to acknowledge that being the dad or mum of a younger little one. I imply there are occasions when it’s completely fantastic. There are additionally instances when it’s actually boring,
Janet Lansbury: Actually boring,
Susan Linn: Actually boring. And I’m fascinated by youngsters, however I learn so much. I often had a e book with me once I took my daughter to the park or when she was taking part in on her personal. There aren’t any research on books and an grownup and whether or not youngsters can get their consideration. I didn’t see a research like that. However with youngsters, youngsters studying an analog e book or taking part in with analog toys will not be as irritable or exhausting to separate from what they’re doing. It’s not as exhausting as when youngsters are immersed in screens. I think that that’s true of adults.
Janet Lansbury: I imagine it undoubtedly is true of adults. That makes a number of sense. I imply, simply my very own expertise with it. And it’s only a completely different stage of engagement. It’s extra energetic since you’re having to exert effort to be engaged within the e book. So it’s not such as you received sucked into one thing that has the maintain on you. You’re doing the holding.
Susan Linn: And I thought of this so much once I was writing. I imply, books may be extremely engrossing, however the medium itself isn’t designed purposely to be addictive. The phrases on a web page, they don’t transfer round. We don’t get little rewards each time we flip a web page. All of the issues that with tech give us little squirts of dopamine that make us really feel good. I imply, that’s not taking place with the e book. So one factor that I do recommend to folks is carry one thing to do whenever you go to the playground, however attempt to have it not be your telephone. Should you wish to carry a pad of paper and a pencil or in case you knit, knit. For me it was studying
Janet Lansbury: That’s useful and it acknowledges that possibly we don’t wish to sit there and observe on a regular basis. Though that may be useful, too, as a result of then our little one is getting that focus that they don’t then must suppose she has to play with me or he has to play with me, they must play with me. They’re not going to provide me consideration if I don’t make them a part of it. So exhibiting them that can also actually assist to encourage their unbiased play.
Susan Linn: And the opposite factor that I speak about within the books is that it’s not that the dad and mom at all times gave into their youngsters’s requests, however they acknowledged that their youngsters have been making a request. No one likes to be ignored.
Janet Lansbury: I actually preferred what Sherry Turkle mentioned, and also you say it too, that it’s not about that we are able to’t interact with our tech gadgets, however it’s simply having some boundaries for ourselves that, really, we’ll really feel good that we did that generally.
Susan Linn: Yeah, I feel that that’s proper as a result of in any other case we really feel uncontrolled and that’s a extremely scary feeling
Janet Lansbury: That we are able to’t handle the issues that we don’t wish to be doing, however we discover ourselves doing them.
Susan Linn: And it’s additionally actually necessary, and I attempt to make this clear within the e book, I’m not, I imply, I labored in tv, I labored with Fred Rogers, I used to be on Mr. Rogers Neighborhood. I got here of age at a time when there was a number of hope for tv. And, not for youthful youngsters, however for older youngsters, I do suppose that there may be profit. But it surely it’s the enterprise mannequin that’s the issue, that tech corporations are in a warfare for our consideration and they’re going to do something they will to seize it. And that’s not good for us and it’s not good for our youngsters.
Janet Lansbury: So there are different factors that I wished to carry up out of your e book that caught out for me and one which type of stunned me. I by no means considered it, however makes a number of sense. You mentioned to be cautious of the distinction between energetic and passive media as a result of what we take into account energetic media is such as you mentioned these video games have been at first. Individuals thought, nicely, not less than they’re actively partaking with the expertise and that’s higher. However you mentioned these are prepackaged selections and the youngsters’s involvement turns into extra reactive than energetic. However you then talked about how story-based packages and watching a present isn’t essentially passive due to the consequences that may have which might be really evoking deep emotions, empathy, introducing phrases and ideas. So after we do wish to have our little one use the display or tech to contemplate the choices and what is perhaps preferable. What is perhaps higher for our little one? It’s not what we essentially thought. The old school TV is perhaps higher than a sport on a tech system.
Susan Linn: As a result of they’re studying narrative, and story-based programming actually is a means of serving to younger youngsters. Once more, I’m not speaking about infants and toddlers. I feel three, when youngsters can comply with a storyline that means, the dad and mom can search for motion pictures and tv packages that inform tales. However the apps which might be being marketed to youngsters, to begin with, they’re marketed as freemiums, so that they’re marketed as free, however they’re actually not free. You are able to do a restricted quantity of issues with them after which it’s worthwhile to improve and pay cash. And the apps are designed to be irritating in case you don’t improve as a result of, once more, their objective is to earn cash and so they additionally operate on rewards and that’s not so good for teenagers.
Janet Lansbury: Yeah, And right here comes the nag issue.
Susan Linn: The nag issue. However the message that children are getting is that it’s not price doing something until you get a reward, whether or not it’s a star or some digital little doodad factor.
Janet Lansbury: Proper, there goes the intrinsic motivation.
Susan Linn: Yeah.
Janet Lansbury: I wished to additionally carry up your level… I believed this is able to be one to type of finish on. “Keep in mind that some of the troubling penalties of our commercialized tradition is that it thrives on exacerbating a number of the worst of human tendencies: envy, selfishness, unthinking, impulsivity and disrespect for the frequent good.” And people aren’t issues that we wanna educate our kids. So how will we counter that?
Susan Linn: Yeah, I imply, I name the e book “Who’s Elevating the Youngsters” as a result of the digitized, commercialized tradition influences youngsters’s values, their studying and their relationships. That’s huge for teenagers. And the concept we’re letting firms do that’s dangerous. What Massive Tech and Massive Enterprise need us to imagine is that that is simply the best way it’s. It’s immutable that they’ve a lot energy and that it’s going to by no means change. And that’s simply not true.
I see this as not only a household downside, it’s a societal downside and we have to cope with it that means. I don’t know what’s going to occur. However I do know that issues are extra hopeful than they’ve been, actually in my advocacy profession. There’s extra advocacy and activism round tech and, due to this fact, round commercialism than I’ve ever seen. And that’s actually, actually encouraging. Some households are taking a tech sabbath in the future per week, as an example. There’s no expertise. There are native teams which might be forming to assist dad and mom cope with expertise and assist youngsters have a wholesome relationship to expertise. And so I really suppose it’s extra hopeful than it’s ever been.
Janet Lansbury: Effectively that’s excellent news.
Susan Linn: Yeah. Social change doesn’t come simple and it comes from the underside up and it takes time. However I feel that the tech corporations and Massive Enterprise, they need us to really feel as if there’s nothing we are able to do. And really there are issues that we are able to do, and I speak about them in my e book.
Janet Lansbury: It’s not a stage taking part in area. That’s one factor that you simply say. It’s robust. We’re not going to, be capable of monitor all the things, however we may be conscious and consciousness is highly effective and that’s the start of any type of change.
Susan Linn: And in addition it’s simpler to set limits in early childhood. If youngsters are rising up with limits, it’s simpler to develop than it’s to remove. So I encourage dad and mom to essentially be enthusiastic about expertise and the way a lot expertise they need their youngsters to have with the understanding that it will increase as they grow old.
Janet Lansbury: Sure.
Susan Linn: And I’m very glad that you simply introduced up the problem that it’s a lot more durable for folks who’re burdened and fogeys working serial jobs and fogeys who’re unemployed or single dad and mom. It’s a lot more durable for them. And that’s why it’s necessary that we expect not nearly our personal youngsters, however about what’s finest for everyone’s youngsters.
Janet Lansbury: Completely.
Effectively, thanks a lot for being on my present and I’m simply thrilled to lastly get an opportunity to attach with you. As I mentioned, I’ve been an enormous fan of yours for a very long time. Thanks for all that you simply do and all that you simply’re giving our kids and us as dad and mom. I actually respect it.
Susan Linn: And again at you. Thanks for all the things that you simply do and it was actually nice to speak to you. I hope we are able to do this once more.
Janet Lansbury: Me too.